Ultrasound Imaging

Course given by
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Georg Schmitz
Course number
Credit Points
Hours per week
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Imaging and therapy with ultrasound are of great importance in medical technology. In this lecture, the fundamentals of ultrasound physics and, building on this, technical elements and concepts of systems for medical diagnostics and therapy are covered. Much of the content taught on ultrasound technology is also applicable to industrial applications, such as non-destructive materials testing.

Topics of the lecture are

  • Propagation of mechanical waves in fluid media and solids
  • Acoustic properties of biological tissues
  • The piezoelectric effect
  • Ultrasonic transducers (structure, equivalent circuit diagrams)
  • Imaging techniques (ultrasonic transducer arrays, reconstruction)
  • Flow measurement with Doppler methods
  • Ultrasound contrast agents
  • Special fields (elastography, photoacoustics, harmonic imaging, HIFU therapy, superresolution imaging)


ID 03/445
Lesson begins
Lesson ends
First lesson is on
Friday, 20.10.2023


ID 03/445
Excercise begins
Excercise ends
First excercise is on
Thursday, 19.10.2023


Type of exam
Oral exam
Exam date
Individual Appointment
Duration of exam
30 minutes
Registration for the exam


After successful completion of the module, students have a basic knowledge of acoustic field theory in fluid media, solids and piezoelectric materials. They are able to apply this knowledge to concrete physical problems and solve wave propagation problems. In doing so, they are able to analyze the given problems and make a decision on the best way to solve them (e.g. analytical calculation versus simulations). Students will be familiar with the design of medical ultrasound equipment and understand the digital signal acquisition and processing techniques used based on acoustic field theory. They can implement important signal processing algorithms themselves, apply them to measurement data and explain their solution path. The students know the most important international sources for technical literature and can use them Through the exercises in small groups, partly on computers, the students are able to practically implement what they have learned in a team, to explain approaches to solutions and to argue for them.



Prior knowledge

Knowledge of systems theory, Fourier transforms, and signal processing equivalent to those taught as fundamentals in the undergraduate electrical engineering and information technology courses.


  1. Angelsen, Bjørn A. J.: Ultrasound Imaging Vol. I. Emantec AS, Trondheim, 2001.
  2. Angelsen, Bjørn A. S.: Ultrasound Imaging Vol. II. Emantec AS, Trondheim, 2000.
  3. Auld, B.A.: Acoustic Fields and Waves in Solids, Bd. 1. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1973.
  4. Auld, B.A.: Acoustic Fields and Waves in Solids, Bd. 2. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1973.
  5. Cheeke, J.; David, N.: Fundamental and applications of ultrasonic waves. CRC Press LLC, Florida, USA, 2002.
  6. Hamilton, M. F.; Blackstock, D. T.: Nonlinear Acoustics. Academic Press, California, 1998.
  7. Hill, Christopher Rowland / (Hrsg.): Physical Prinpiples of Medical Ultrasonics. Ellis Horward Ltd., Chichester, 1986.
  8. Kino, G.S.: Acoustic Waves. Prentice-Hall, 1987.
  9. Kuttruff, Heinrich: Physik und Technik des Ultraschalls. S. Hirzel Verlag, Stuttgart, 1988.
  10. Lerch, Reinhard; Sessler, Gerhard; Wolf, Dietrich: Technische Akustik: Grundlagen und Anwendungen, Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009.
  11. Morse, Philip M.; Ingard, K.Uno: Theoretical Acoustics. Mac Graw-Hill, New York,1968.
  12. Morneburg, Heinz / (Hrsg.): Bildgebende Systeme für die medizinische Diagnostik. Publicis MCD Verlag, Erlangen, 1995.
  13. Oppelt, A. (Ed.): Imaging Systems for Medical Diagnostics. Publicis Corp. Publ. Erlangen, 2005.
  14. Schmitz, G.: Biomedical Sonography, in Biomedical Imaging: Principles and Applications (ed R. Salzer), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118271933.ch11, 2012.
  15. Shung, K. K.; Smith, M. B.; Tsui, B.: Principles of Medical Imaging. Academic Press, San Diego, 1992.
  16. Shung, K. Kirk: Diagnostic Ultrasound, Imaging and Blood Flow Measurements. Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, 2015.
  17. Szabo, Thomas, Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging: Inside Out. Academic Press, Burlington, 2004.


Lecture and exercise materials will be made available via Moodle. Self-enrollment in the course is possible from 10/19/2023 with the password "Auld".